Pulseaudio was installed on the remote server, and I thought it should be pretty easy to route the output back over the internet to myself.
In the end it was:
parec -r | oggenc -r -o - - | ./sighttpd -f ./oggout.conf
I called my java code with 'padsp', I'm not sure that is necessary but it probably is. This method avoids using Gstreamer (that should be a good solution if you want to scale: It can plug your audio into icecast/shoutcast.)
SourceDataLine provided the audio stream in my Java app.
NOTE: I spent a whole bunch of time playing with a file output pipe from pulse audio. The excellent support from pulse audio mailing list and irc channel steered me away from that.